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Roman emperor (54â€"68 ce), stepson and heir of the emperor Claudius. He became infamous for his personal debaucheries and extravagances and, on doubtful evidence, for his burning of Rome and persecutions of Christians. Nero's father, Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, died in about 40 ce, and Nero was brought up by his mother, Agrippina the Younger, a great-granddaughter of the emperor Augustus. After poisoning her second husband, Agrippina incestuously became the wife of her uncle, the emperor Claudius, and persuaded him to favour Nero for the succession, over the rightful claim of his own son, Britannicus, and to marry his daughter, Octavia, to Nero. Having already helped to bring about the murder of Valeria Messalina, her predecessor as the wife of Claudius, in 48, and ceaselessly pursuing her intrigues to bring Nero to power, Agrippina eliminated her opponents among Claudius's palace advisers, probably had Claudius himself poisoned in 54, and completed her work with the poisoning of Britannicus in 55. Upon the death of Claudius she at once had Nero proclaimed emperor by the Praetorian Guard, whose prefect, Sextus Afranius Burrus, was her partisan; the Senate thus had to accept a fait accompli. For the first time absolute power in the Roman Empire was vested in a mere boy, who was not yet 17.

Agrippina immediately eliminated the powerful freedman Narcissus, who had always opposed her aims. She hoped to control the government, but Burrus and Nero's old tutor, the Stoic philosopher Lucius Annaeus Seneca, though they owed their influence to Agrippina, were not content to remain her tools. They encouraged Nero to act independently of her, and a growing coolness resulted in Nero's relations with his mother. In 56 Agrippina was forced into retirement. From that time until 62, Burrus and Seneca were the effective rulers of the empire.

Brought up in this atmosphere, Nero might well have begun to behave like a monster upon his accession as emperor in 54 but, in fact, behaved quite otherwise. He put an end to the more odious features of the later years of Claudius's reign, including secret trials before the emperor and the dominance of corrupt freedmen, and he accorded more independence to the Senate. The testimony of contemporaries depicts Nero at this time as a handsome young man of fine presence but with soft, weak features and a restless spirit. Up to the year 59, Nero's biographers cite only acts of generosity and clemency on his account. His government forbade contests in the circus involving bloodshed, banned capital punishment, reduced taxes, and accorded permission to slaves to bring civil complaints against unjust masters. Nero himself pardoned writers of epigrams against him and even those who plotted against him, and secret trials were few. The law of treason was dormant: Claudius had put 40 senators to death, but, between the murders instigated by Agrippina in 54 and the year 62, there were no like incidents in Nero's reign. Nero also inaugurated competitions in poetry, in the theatre, and in athletics as counterattractions to gladiatorial combats. He saw to it that assistance was provided to cities that had suffered disaster and, at the request of the Jewish historian Josephus, gave aid to the Jews.

Scorn And Disdain

Oliver Cromwell, the author of England's interregnum, did not ban Christmas, but he led the movement that did. In 1647-six years before Cromwell established the English Protectorate-the Puritan-minded Parliament, fearful that feasting, caroling and wassailing was leading to disorder (or enjoyment), outlawed Christmas celebrations. Trees? Gone. Nativity scenes? Gone. Decorations? Gone. The whole dreary ban lasted until Cromwell was overthrown in 1660.

Detested by both sides in the American Revolution, the traitor Benedict Arnold fled to England in December 1781 and there, met with scorn and disdain. Instead of the lavish rewards and warm welcome he anticipated, the British did little more for Benedict Arnold than honor their financial promises, and even then only partly. For the rest, Arnold was never able to remake his life as satisfactorily as he wished.

This was at least partly his own fault. For his treachery exacerbated traits which had already excited the animosity of his fellow Americans. Arnold was arrogant, imperious, self-centered, an implacable enemy and endlessly demanding. Nevertheless, he remained a prize catch for the British and proved useful in a strategy designed to undermine the American revolutionary cause.

On October 9, 1780, Benedict Arnold was appointed a Brigadier-General in the British Army. Two days later, his justification of treason - the broadside To the Inhabitants of America - was published in the British territory of Bermuda in the Royal Gazette. This depicted Arnold as a devoted loyalist and patriot who had always kept Britain's best interests at heart. The broadside claimed that he was incensed by the tyranny, injustice and impolity of the American "rebels" and had at last returned to the bosom of Britain where, in spirit at least, he had always belonged.

This piece of special pleading was supposed to tempt other American officers to emulate Arnold and come over to the British side. Arnold himself help the process along by promising to recruit up to three thousand men for a turncoat army of his own, the American Legion of Cavalry and Infantry. This barefaced attempt at suborning American soldiers made Arnold even more detested than he was already . However, his math was severely at fault, for his estimate of potential recruits proved fanciful. His`Legion comprised only seven officers and 212 rank and file. The Loyalists in New York commented that "The ship must be sinking if the rats are leaving it." One British officer matched that when he remarked that Arnold's proclamation would raise "a regiment of scoundrels as great as himself, if he can find them!"

After the Revolutionary War ended and Arnold reached Britain on December 15, 1781, it seemed at first that the unrelieved odium in which he was held might fade in time. The Arnolds were received at court, where the pretty 21-year old Peggy Arnold was eyed appreciatively by King George III. Even Queen Charlotte was quite taken with her. Nevertheless, when Arnold attempted to gain official employment, he met a succession of dead ends. The British War Office refused him a command in the British Army, despite his British rank and numerous importunings. In 1784, George Johnstone, newly created director of the British East India Company, turned down Arnold's application for a post in a way that precisely analyzed the traitor's predicament.

"Under an unsuccessful insurrection, all actors are rebels" Johnstone wrote to Arnold. "Crowned with success, they become immortal patriots. A fortunate plot holds you up as a saviour of nations. A premature discovery" - exactly Arnold's experience when his treachery was unexpectedly revealed in 1780 - "brings you to the scaffold or brands your fame with dark and doubtful suspicions."

This, of course, was only one instance of the scorn and mistrust which Benedict Arnold encountered in Britain. He had been in the country a few weeks when, in February 1782, a letter from a man named Morris was published in the General Advertiser, claiming that Arnold had been in transported from America for horse stealing. When Morris refused to back down, a British officer, captain John Battersby, came to Arnold\s defense and challenged the letter writer to a duel. It never took place.

At around the same time, Arnold visited Parliament in London, to be met by a messenger from one of the members, Lord Surrey, who threatened to propose that the House of Commons be cleared unless Arnold left the premises. In similar vein, the eminent British politician Charles James Fox refused to gamble with Arnold at Brooks's, a prestigious social club. These slights and snubs were only some of the insults Arnold had to endure and his frustrations intensified with the failure of his venture into commerce with West Indian markets in the 1780s. He never entirely gave up hope of official employment but these aspirations, too, met the same brick wall that had stunted all his efforts in Britain.

Benedict Arnold died of dropsy on June 14, 1801. His departure was not widely noted in the British Press. One obituary described him dismissively as "A person much noticed during the American war" , but another went straight to the heart of the traitor's experience. "The price of failure without honor" ran this comment "was never better known than to Benedict Arnold."

The British officer who ended the Christmas truce of 1914 might have lived in infamy-if someone had recorded his name. The unsanctioned truce erupted after British and German troops, upon listening to each other's caroling throughout that Christmas Eve, left their trenches at dawn to fraternize, trading cigarettes and plum pudding and even kicking around a soccer ball. But then the British officer ordered his men back to their posts; firing resumed a few hours later. And officers on both sides kept a vigil against similar outbreaks of humanity every December for the rest of the war.

While directing the government themselves, Burrus and Seneca had largely left Nero uncontrolled to pursue his own tastes and pleasures. Seneca urged Nero to use his autocratic powers conscientiously, but he obviously failed to harness the boy's more generous impulses to his responsibilities. At first Nero hated signing death sentences, and the extortions of Roman tax collectors upon the populace led him in 58 to unrealistically suggest that the customs dues should be abolished. Even later Nero was capable of conceiving grandiose plans for conquests or the creation of public works, but for the most part he used his position simply to gratify his own personal pleasures. His nocturnal rioting in the streets was a scandal as early as 56, but the emergence of real brutality in Nero can be fixed in the 35-month period between the putting to death of his mother at his orders in 59 and his similar treatment of his wife Octavia in June 62. He was led to the murder of Agrippina by her insanity and her fury at seeing her son slip out of her control, to the murder of Octavia by his having fallen in love with Poppaea Sabina, the young wife of the senator (and later emperor) Otho, and by his fear that his repudiated wife was fomenting disaffection at court and among the populace. He married Poppaea in 62, but she died in 65, and he subsequently married the patrician lady Statilia Messalina.

Seeing that he could do what he liked without fear of censure or retribution, Nero began to give rein to inordinate artistic pretensions. He fancied himself not only a poet but also a charioteer and lyre player, and in 59 or 60 he began to give public performances; later he appeared on the stage, and the theatre furnished him with the pretext to assume every kind of role. To the Romans these antics seemed to be scandalous breaches of civic dignity and decorum. Nero even dreamed of abandoning the throne of Rome in order to fulfill his poetical and musical gifts, though he did not act on these puerile ambitions. Beginning about 63 he also developed strange religious enthusiasms and became increasingly attracted to the preachers of novel cults. By now Seneca felt that he had lost all influence over Nero, and he retired after Burrus's death in 62.

The great fire that ravaged Rome in 64 illustrates how low Nero's reputation had sunk by this time. Taking advantage of the fire's destruction, Nero had the city reconstructed in the Greek style and began building a prodigious palace-the Golden House-which, had it been finished, would have covered a third of Rome. During the fire Nero was at his villa at Antium 35 miles from Rome and therefore cannot be held responsible for the burning of the city. But the Roman populace mistakenly believed that he himself had started the fire in Rome in order to indulge his aesthetic tastes in the city's subsequent reconstruction. According to the Annals of the Roman historian Tacitus and to the Nero of the Roman biographer Suetonius, Nero in response tried to shift responsibility for the fire on the Christians, who were popularly thought to engage in many wicked practices. Hitherto the government had not clearly distinguished Christians from Jews; almost by accident, Nero initiated the later Roman policy of halfhearted persecution of the Christians, in the process earning himself the reputation of Antichrist in the Christian tradition.

Meanwhile, the imperial government had had some success in the east. The great foreign-policy problem of the time was that of Armenia. Since the reign of Augustus, it had been Roman policy to appoint vassal kings there and so make Armenia a buffer state against Parthia, Rome's implacable foe in the east. But the Armenians had long chafed under Roman rule, and in the emperor Claudius's last years a Parthian prince named Tiridates had made himself king of Armenia with the support of its people. In response, Nero's new government took vigorous action, appointing an able general, Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, to the command. Prolonged military operations by Corbulo led in 66 to a new settlement; Tiridates was recognized as king, but he was compelled to come to Rome to receive his crown from Nero.

Despite this success, the provinces were increasingly uneasy, for they were oppressed by exactions to cover Nero's extravagant expenditures on his court, new buildings, and gifts to his favourites; the last expenditures alone are said to have amounted to more than two billion sesterces, a sum that was several times the annual cost of the army. A revolt in Britain was headed by Queen Boudicca (Boadicea) in 60 or 61, and an insurrection in Judaea lasted from 66 to 70. Nero had many antagonists by this time. The great conspiracy to make Gaius Calpurnius Piso emperor in 65 reveals the diversity of his enemies-senators, knights, officers, and philosophers. That the conspiracy included military officers was an ominous sign, but Nero did not give way to panic; slaves kept him out of danger by warning him of plots that were hatching among their masters. And he did not altogether abandon his lenient attitude. Out of 41 participants in the Piso conspiracy, only 18 died (including Seneca and the poet Lucan), either by order or from fear; the others were exiled or pardoned.

At the end of the year 66, Nero undertook a long visit to Greece that was to keep him away from Rome for 15 months, and during his absence he entrusted the consulate to one of his freedmen. On this trip Nero engaged in new displays of his artistic prowess, and he walked about garbed as an ascetic, barefoot and with flowing hair. His enthusiasm for Greek culture also prompted him to free a number of Greek cities in honour of their glorious past. In the four months following his return to Rome in February 68, his delirious pretensions as both an artist and a religious worshiper aroused the enmity not only of the Senate and those patricians who had been dispossessed by him but also of the Italian middle class, which had old-fashioned moral views and which furnished most of the officers of the army. Even the common soldiers of the legions were scandalized to see the descendant of Caesar publicly perform on stage the parts not only of ancient Greek heroes but of far lower characters. "I have seen him on stage," Gaius Julius Vindex, the legate who rebelled against him, was to say, "playing pregnant women and slaves about to be executed."

At the news of revolts brewing throughout the empire-that of the provincial governor Servius Sulpicius Galba in Spain, the rebellion of the provincial governor Julius Vindex at Lyon in Gaul (France), and others on the eastern frontier-Nero only laughed and indulged in further megalomaniacal displays instead of taking action. "I have only to appear and sing to have peace once more in Gaul," he is reported to have said. Meanwhile, the revolt spread and the legions made Galba emperor; the Senate condemned Nero to die a slave's death: on a cross and under the whip. The Praetorian Guard, his palace guard, abandoned him, and his freedmen left to embark on the ships he kept in readiness at Ostia, the port of Rome. Nero was obliged to flee the city. According to Suetonius, he stabbed himself in the throat with a dagger. According to another version (recounted by Tacitus and almost certainly fiction) he reached the Greek islands, where the following year (69) the governor of Cythnos (modern Kíthnos) recognized him in the guise of a red-haired prophet and leader of the poor, had him arrested, and executed the sentence that had been passed by the Senate.

The Roman populace and the Praetorian Guard later came to regret that they had lost such a liberal patron, but to his subjects in general, Nero had been a tyrant, and the revolt his misrule provoked sparked a series of civil wars that for a time threatened the survival of the Roman Empire and caused widespread misery.



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