Land-based - The Army
The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. As of fiscal year 2002, it consisted of 480,000 soldiers on active duty and 555,000 in reserve ... 350,000 in the Army National Guard and 205,000 in the Army Reserve. The Army was formed on June 14, 1775, before the establishment of the United States, to meet the demands of the American Revolutionary War.
A regiment is a military unit, larger than a company and smaller than a division. The United States Army was also once organized into regiments, but presently uses the brigade instead, except for cavalry. Although every battalion or squadron is associated with a regiment for historical purposes, the only combat regiments are cavalry regiments which are attached to a corps. These regiments, who are associated generally for historical purposes, can be known as parent regiments. The United States Marine Corps continues to use the regimental system in which a regiment is a permanent organization consisting of three battalions and all necessary support units to operate independently.
The Army is organized by function. Combat Arms include Infantry, Armor, Field Artillery, Air Defense Artillery, Army Corps of Engineers, Army Aviation, and Special Forces. Combat Support Arms include Signal Corps, Intelligence Corps, Chemical Corps, and Military Police Corps. Combat Service Support troops include the Judge Advocate General's Corps, Adjutant General's Corps, Finance Corps, Transportation Corps, Quartermaster Corps, Ordnance Corps, Medical Service Corps, and Nurse Corps.
The Army National Guard is an elite group of warriors who dedicate a portion of their time to serving their nation. Each state has its own National Guard as required by the constitution; in fact, the National Guard is the only branch of the military whose existence is actually required by the constitution.
National Guard units can be mobilized at any time by presidential order to supplement regular armed forces, and upon declaration of a state of emergency by the governor of the state in which they serve. Unlike Army Reserve members, National Guard members cannot be mobilized individually (except through voluntary transfers), but only as part of their respective units.
Guard members have a long and noble history of serving at home and abroad to ensure the safety and freedom of their fellow citizens. They have combated natural disasters, supported regular Army troops, and when called upon, borne arms against their nation's enemies. Since 1636, the Guard has brought glory and honor upon itself and its soldiers through quiet and selfless service. The Army National Guard will celebrated it's 369th birthday on December 13, 2005.
Throughout the 19th century the regular Army was small, and the militia provided the majority of the troops during the Mexican War, the start of the American Civil War, and the Spanish-American War. In 1903, part of the militia was federalized and renamed the National Guard and organized as a Reserve force for the Army. In World War I, the National Guard made up 40 percent of the U.S. combat divisions in France. In World War II the National Guard made up 19 divisions. One hundred forty thousand guardsmen were mobilized during the Korean War and over 63,000 for Operation Desert Storm. They have also participated in the US peacekeeping forces in Somalia, Haiti, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bosnia, and Kosovo as well as for natural disasters, strikes, riots and security for the Olympics when they have been in the states. The National Guard is not subject to the Posse Comitatus Act and can engage in law enforcement activities, except when federalized.
Following World War II, the National Guard aviation units became the Air National Guard. There is no Naval National Guard due to the constitutional provision against states having ships of war in time of peace, though both New York and Maryland have incorporated Naval Militia units.
National Guard members and reservists now comprise a larger percentage of frontline fighting forces than in any war in U.S. history (About 43 percent in Iraq and 55 percent in Afghanistan). There are now 183,366 National Guard members and reservists on active duty nationwide who leave behind about 300,000 dependents, according to U.S. Defense Department statistics. The freedoms that all Americans enjoy were bought with the blood, sweat and lives of citizens who heard the call: strong, brave individuals who have placed our collective good over their personal safety.
The United States Army Reserve is the federal reserve force of the United States Army. Together, the Army Reserve and the Army National Guard constitute the reserve components of the US Army. Army Reserve soldiers may be soldiers who left the active Army after a period of service, or they may have enlisted directly into the Reserve. Reserve soldiers generally perform training or service one weekend per month (inactive duty for training) and for two continuous weeks at some time during the year (annual training). Many reserve soldiers are organized into Army Reserve units, while others serve to augment active Army units.
The U.S. Army Reserve is rooted in the tradition of the American Colonists who would serve, protect and defend this country whenever, wherever it was needed. George Washington and Alexander Hamilton proposed a contingency force to support the Army that would be centrally controlled by the Federal Government.
In 1908, Congress established the Medical Reserve Corps to provide a reservoir of trained Officers in times of war, then expanded the Reserve force in 1916 and 1920. Army Reserve Soldiers have trained and served with excellence since then -- through World War I, World War II, Korea, Vietnam, the Cold War, Panama, the Persian Gulf, Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia, Kosovo, the Iraq War and the Global War on Terrorism.
Since 1990, Army Reserve Soldiers have been deployed to support every American military operation, including peacekeeping and humanitarian missions. Army Reserve Soldiers will continue their tradition of distinguished service and sacrifice today and into the future.
The Chief, Army Reserve (CAR) is responsible for plans, policies and programs affecting all Army Reserve Soldiers, including those who report directly to the Army. OCAR is comprised of specialized groups that advise and support the CAR on a wide variety of issues.
Functional specialists within OCAR analyze issues, liaise with other government agencies and develop and implement new initiatives. Examples are the Force Programs Directorate and the Strategic Human Resources Group. Administrative offices within OCAR handle technical requirements and support; contracting, budgeting and financial management; and communications. Examples are Enterprise Services Activity and the Chief Financial Management Office. The Executive staff includes the leaders of the Army Reserve and their aides. This includes the CAR, the Deputy Chiefs of the Army Reserve and the Command Sergeant Major.
USARC's mission is to provide trained and ready units and individuals to mobilize and deploy in support of the national military strategy. USARC is responsible for all of the operational tasks involved in training, equipping, managing, supporting, mobilizing and retaining Soldiers under its command. USARC is comprised of over 20 offices, each with an individual mission and function that contributes to the accomplishment of USARC's overall mission.
Operational groups such as personnel, logistics, operations, training and resource management are responsible for the daily work involved in managing, training and equipping the Army Reserve's Soldiers and units across the continental United States. Special staff offices provide technical support and guidelines to USARC and Army Reserve units across the country. These offices include public affairs, safety and enterprise services. The Executive staff includes the leaders of the USARC and their personal staff. The leaders are the Commanding General, the Deputy Commanding General, the Chief of Staff and the Command Sergeant Major. The personal staff includes the Staff Judge Advocate (legal), Inspector General, Historian and Chaplain.
The majority of Army Reserve units report to the Army through the U.S. Army Reserve Command (USARC), which is subordinate to the U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM). The exceptions are Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations units, as well as units outside of the continental United States and Puerto Rico.
Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations units (Active Duty and Army Reserve) are commanded by the U.S. Army Special Operations Command (USASOC). Special Operations units in the Army Reserve consist of Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations units, which are commanded by the U.S. Army Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations Command (USACAPOC), a subordinate unit to USASOC.
Units outside the continental United States and Puerto Rico are commanded by a regional command, either the U.S. Army European Command (USAEUR) or the U.S. Army Pacific Command (USARPAC). The 7th Army Reserve Command, located in Heidelberg, Germany, is responsible for all Army Reserve units within USAEUR's command territory. The 9th Regional Readiness Command at Fort Shafter, Hawaii, is responsible for all Army Reserve units within USARPAC's command territory.
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